JERUSALEM (AP) -- Pope Francis' trip to the Middle East offers a host of symbolically important -- and potentially problematic -- moments, from the gifts he'll receive to the venues he'll visit and words he will pronounce. Here are five things to look for during his trip starting Saturday to Jordan, the West Bank and Israel.
Standard diplomatic protocol calls for political and religious leaders to exchange gifts when visiting one another, and a papal trip to the Holy Land is no different.
When Pope Paul VI met in Jerusalem with the spiritual leader of the world's Orthodox Christians in 1964 -- an encounter Francis is commemorating with his visit -- Paul presented Patriarch Athenagoras with a chalice, while the patriarch gave Paul a golden medallion which Orthodox bishops wear. The significance was immediately clear: a mutual desire to end 900 years of division stemming from the Great Schism of 1054, which split Christianity into Catholic and Orthodox churches.
"The chalice was a symbol of sacramental union ... while the medallion was a sign of episcopal unity," said Valeria Martano, whose recent book "The Embrace of Jerusalem" recounts the historic meeting.
Political points can also be scored with gifts: When Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu visited Francis in December, he gave him a book about the Catholic Church's forced conversion of Jews in Spain written by his late father, an expert on the Inquisition. When the Palestinian leader, Mahmoud Abbas, paid his respects a few months earlier, Francis presented him with a pen. "I hope to use this pen to sign a peace accord with Israel," Abbas said.
To watch for then is what Francis will give, but more importantly what he'll receive from his various hosts.
Francis' gift to leaders and patriarchs, unveiled Saturday, was a bronze medallion of Paul VI and Athenagoras meeting in Jerusalem. Worth noting is that in the medallion, Paul appears even taller than Athenagoras, even though at 1.9 meters (6-foot, four inches), the Orthodox patriarch dwarfed the slighter-built Paul.
In the West Bank city of Bethlehem, Palestinians plan to give the pope a cross that includes pieces of the Israeli separation barrier that surrounds the biblical town. A local artist, Nicola Elias, will give the pope a painting showing Francis carrying a cross near the barrier. Palestinians say the barrier -- which Israel says is a security measure -- has hindered movement and suffocated the economy.
In Jerusalem, meanwhile, Israel's national Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, is preparing to present the pope a number of items, including a collection of poems and a replica of a painting made by Abraham Kolowicz, a 14-year-old boy who perished in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
The gifts are part of a larger battle between Israel and the Palestinians to win support for their deep connections to this contested piece of land.
For Israel, the pope will visit the Western Wall, the holiest site where Jews can pray, and the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial. For Palestinians, the pope will go to a Palestinian refugee camp and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem's Old City. Each stop carries great significance. Israel wants the pope to see the ancient Jewish connection to the Holy Land, and to appreciate the great Jewish suffering that took place in the Holocaust. Palestinian refugees will tell the pope the story of the great suffering they have experienced in the 66 years since Israel was founded, while the Dome of the Rock symbolizes the Palestinian connection to east Jerusalem, which they claim as a future capital.
In Jordan, the first leg of Francis' trip, the pope will also make two symbolically significant stops: Praying at the spot where Jesus is believed to have been baptized, and meeting with Syrian, Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, learning first-hand about the plight of Christians fleeing conflict in the region.
To watch for is the text of the note left by Francis at the Western Wall. When St. John Paul II visited in 2000, he left a note asking forgiveness for the suffering inflicted on Jews by Christians over history. Pope Benedict XVI's note prayed for peace for Christians, Muslims and Jews alike. The Vatican hasn't said whether Francis' note will be made public.
VANDALISM AND SECURITY CONCERNS
In recent weeks, vandals believed to be fringe Jewish radicals have scribbled anti-Arab and anti-Christian graffiti on Christian holy sites, including an attack on the Vatican's own Notre Dame Center in Jerusalem. The hate crimes have angered local church officials. Israeli authorities say they are working overtime to prevent any embarrassing incidents during the pope's stay.