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A look at Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood

Monday - 7/1/2013, 6:42pm  ET

Egyptian protesters ransack the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in the Muqatam district in Cairo, Monday, July 1, 2013. Protesters stormed and ransacked the headquarters of President Mohammed Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood group early Monday, in an attack that could spark more violence as demonstrators gear up for a second day of mass rallies aimed at forcing the Islamist leader from power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)

The Associated Press

Soon after the February 2011 fall of Hosni Mubarak, the Muslim Brotherhood opened its first public headquarters in a luxury villa in Cairo, with its symbol, two golden swords under the Quran with the slogan "Prepare," displayed on giant sign on the front. It was a landmark moment: After decades as a banned organization, the Muslim fundamentalist group was declaring it was now legal, public and a powerhouse in the new Egypt. Symbolically, the headquarters was located on a plateau where many of the group's early, executed leaders were buried decades ago.

Elections made it the strongest party in parliament and elevated one of its own, Mohammed Morsi, as the country's first democratically chosen president. On Monday, that headquarters was overrun, burned and ransacked by protesters who demanded Morsi's ouster.

A look at the Brotherhood:


The Brotherhood was founded in 1928, advocating rule by Shariah, or Islamic law, and grew into Egypt's most organized, disciplined and widespread political group, with millions of members nationwide and branches across the Islamic world.

At the top is the "general guide," currently Mohammed Badie. The group's executive leadership body is the Guidance Council, made up of 16-19 members. The general guide and the guidance council are chosen by the Shoura Council, the group's version of a legislature made up of 75-90 members chosen by regional councils nationwide.

The man believed to be the most powerful member is Badie's deputy, Khairat el-Shater, a wealthy businessman who was initially the Brotherhood's candidate for president until he was disqualified because of a previous prison term. Morsi ran in his place.

The Brotherhood's members swear an oath to "listen and obey" the group's leadership and are organized into a tight hierarchy. At the base is the "usra" or "family," basically a study group small enough that its members can meet regularly, build personal bonds, and discuss the group's teachings on Islam. Each of the thousands of "families" nationwide reports up a pyramid of authority and gets instructions from above.

Families in the blood-relative sense of the word also play a major role. Brotherhood members tend to marry within the organization, socialize together in its network of mosques, clubs and schools, and raise their children in the group. Its members include a wide range of professionals -- doctors, engineers, teachers and, importantly, very successful businessmen whose profits along with required dues help fund the group.

The group also runs extensive charities, providing free or cheap medical care, food and other services to the poor.

That structure helped the group survive and even spread during its years of arrests and crackdowns, particularly under Mubarak. It also made it a powerful force in elections, able to bring out many highly organized volunteers to campaign for Brotherhood candidates.



In its early decades, the Brotherhood was involved in assassinations of Egypt's British colonial rulers and Egyptian officials. In 1954, President Gamal Abdel-Nasser banned the Brotherhood after blaming it for a failed assassination attempt against him. Leaders were executed and thousands of its members imprisoned, often subjected to torture.

In the next nearly 60 years, however, it grew, sometimes underground, sometimes semi-overt. It would test the limits of what the regimes would allow or would strike tacit deals with authorities, sometimes facing heavy crackdowns if it went too far.

Abdel-Nasser's successor, Anwar Sadat, initially gave it some room to maneuver, and the group formally renounced the use of violence in 1973. The Brotherhood and other Islamist movements established strong networks in the universities, although Sadat arrested many when student activists began to denounce his rule. They were later freed by Mubarak, who took power after Sadat's 1981 assassination.

Under Mubarak, the group made forays into parliamentary elections, although the regime's rigid control and vote-rigging ensured opposition victories were minimal. It was allowed to run candidates under recognized opposition political parties in the mid- 1980s. In the early 1990s, it performed strongly in union elections, winning control of the leadership of several. Mubarak lashed back, suspending union leaderships and arresting Brotherhood members.

In the 2000s, the group pushed back into politics, running candidates as independents in parliamentary elections. Moderates in the group argued that the Brotherhood accepted the principles of democracy, and that the only way Egypt could be truly democratic was if the group was legal and allowed to compete freely. Its biggest victory came in 2005, when its candidates won a fifth of parliament's seats, despite clashes when Mubarak's security forces tried to block opposition voters.

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