JERUSALEM (AP) -- For decades, the religious Jews who bucked a rabbinic ban and visited a Muslim holy site in Jerusalem where the ancient Jewish temple once stood were seen by many as a fanatic fringe.
But their cause is gaining support among both mainstream religious Jews and Israel's government. Jewish visits to the politically-sensitive compound are on the rise, and key Israeli lawmakers are lobbying to end a ban on Jewish prayer there.
The matter reached the highest of official levels this month when Israel asked Jordan, which administers Muslim religious affairs at the site, to consider allowing limited Jewish worship there, according to a Jordanian official.
The visits have unnerved Muslim authorities, who fear that Israel is quietly trying to upset a fragile status quo and encroach upon the site. Similar tensions in the past have boiled over into deadly violence.
"If this happens, there will be lot of bloodshed," said Azzam Khatib, director general of the Waqf, Jordan's Islamic authority that manages the Jerusalem holy site, about the possibility of organized Jewish prayers there.
The site, known to Muslims as the Noble Sanctuary and to Jews as the Temple Mount, is ground zero in the territorial and religious conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors.
Revered as Islam's third holiest spot, the site's iconic gold-topped Dome of the Rock enshrines the rock where Muslims believe the Prophet Mohammad ascended to heaven.
Jews believe the rock may be where the holiest part of the two ancient temples stood about 2,000 years ago -- and where religious Jews pray a third temple will one day be built.
The site is so holy that Jews have traditionally refrained from praying on the hilltop, congregating instead at the adjacent Western Wall. In recent weeks, Israel's chief rabbis, as well as the rabbi of the Western Wall, have issued directives urging people not to ascend the Temple Mount, arguing that the temple's former location on the mount is unclear and that Jews at the site could inadvertently enter the holiest area of the once-standing temple, where it was forbidden to tread.
Attitudes among Orthodox Jews have been evolving, however, as archaeologists have weighed in about the precise location of the ancient temples -- and of places where Jews would be allowed to tread.
According to figures the Israeli newspaper Makor Rishon said it obtained from the police, Jewish visits to the holy site have jumped from about 5,700 in 2009 to some 8,300 in 2011. Last year, the number dropped slightly to about 7,800 and this year rose to nearly 8,000.
The Temple Institute, an organization that has led efforts to allow Jewish prayer at the site, attributes the drop in 2012 and this year to police closures during religious holidays when many Jews usually visit. There was no immediate comment from the police to confirm the statistics.
In one of the strangest security measures in the Holy Land, visitors identified as Jews receive police escorts and are banned from praying.
Rabbi Chaim Richman of the Temple Institute, a group that has for years been advocating for Jewish prayer at the holy site, said police often harass and remove Jews who ascend the mount and recite prayers. He called for Jewish religious freedom at the site.
"I'm asking for the right to move my lips," Richman said.
Israeli officials declined comment on the matter, but an aide to Israel's deputy minister of religious affairs said the religious affairs ministry has drafted a proposal that would allow for limited Jewish prayer at the site.
"We see great importance to allow equality in freedom of religion" at the site, said the Idit Druyan, the aide to Deputy Minister Eli Ben-Dahan. "There is no reason why one religion is allowed and another religion is not."
Muslims at the site have protested in recent weeks over what they call Jewish encroachment, and Muslim clerics warn against allowing separate hours for Jewish and Muslim prayer at the site, an arrangement that exists at a Hebron holy site and that Druyan said the religious affairs ministry has considered.
A Jordanian official said Israel asked Jordan this year to consider allowing limited amount of Jews to pray in a small area at the site, according to a Jordanian official. The Israeli request was rebuffed, said the official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was discussing a classified diplomatic matter.
The Jordanian official said Jordanian King Abdullah II has asked Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu several times, most recently two weeks ago, to prevent Jewish worship at the compound, warning that such a move would provoke Muslims and rekindle anti-Israel sentiment around the Muslim world.